Uncovering gender differences in factors that influence mood and anxiety disorders

Project Goals & Approach:

Despite availability of epidemiologic data on mental health outcomes across race/ethnicity, little is known about the effect of the intersection of gender and race on the epidemiology, etiology, and risk factors for major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder. To extend the work of previous National Survey of American Life (NSAL) studies by examining the way that the intersection of race, ethnicity, and gender influences twelve month and lifetime major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder outcomes among non-Hispanic whites, Caribbean blacks, and African Americans. The National Survey of American Life (NSAL) allows for the analysis of important socio-demographic and psychosocial differences in the prevalence of major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder across race and gender. NSAL includes national household probability samples of non-institutionalized African Americans, Caribbean Blacks, and non-Hispanic whites in the United States from data collected between February 2001 and June 2003. The sample consisted of3570 African Americans, 1621 Caribbean Blacks, and 891 non-Hispanic Whites 18 years and older (N= 6082).Twelve-month and lifetime DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), as measured by the WMH CIDI.


  • Johnson-Lawrence, V. D., Griffith, D. M., & Watkins, D.C. (2013). The effects of race, ethnicity and mood/anxiety disorders on the chronic physical health conditions of men from a national sample.  American Journal of Men’s Health. Published online ahead of print. DOI:10.1177/1557988313484960
  • Watkins, D. C., & Neighbors, H. W. (2012). Social determinants of depression and the black male experience, In Social determinants of health among African-American men’, Edited by Henrie M. Treadwell, Clare Xanthos,  & Kisha B. Holden. pp 39-62. Jossey-Bass. [ISBN: 978-0-470-93110-3]
  • Watkins, D. C. (2012). Depression over the adult life course for African American men: Toward a framework for research and practice. American Journal of Men’s Health, 6(3), 194-210.


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